Osteoporosis References for ProjectAWARE segment
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Osteoporosis: References

researched by the ProjectAWARE group, 2001

  1. Adachi, JD; Sargeant, EJ; Sagle, MA; Lamont, D; Fawcett, PD; Bensen, WG; McQueen, M; Nazir, DJ; Goldsmith, CH. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on bone density of women taking oestrogen replacement therapy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997 Jan;104(1):64-70
  2. Ali, E, et al. Natural Remedies and Supplements. NY: Ages Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-886508-28-3
  3. Balch, JF and Balch, PA. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 2nd ed. NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997. ISBN 0-89529-727-2
  4. Beattie, JH and Peace, HS. The influence of a low-boron diet and boron supplementation on bone, major mineral and sex steroid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr 1993 May;69(3):871-84
  5. Manolagas, SC. Advances in the Treatment of Osteoporosis. 21st Annual Meeting of The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. September 30-October 4, 1999. St. Louis, Missouri.
  6. Osteoporosis and Bone Physiology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington.
  7. Duke, James A. The Green Pharmacy. Rodale Press Inc: NY. hardcover edition 1997 (St. Martin's Paperbacks edition July 1998). ISBN 0-312-96648-2.
  8. Epstein O, Kato Y, Dick R, Sherlock S. Vitamin D, hydroxyapatite, and calcium gluconate in treatment of cortical bone thinning in postmenopausal women with primary biliary cirrhosis. Am J Clin Nutr 1982 Sep;36(3):426-30
  9. Ettinger B, Genant HK, Cann CE. Late-term estrogen replacement therapy prevents bone loss and fractures. Ann Intern Med. 1985;102:319-324.
  10. Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, et al. The effect of postmenopausal estrogen therapy on bone density in elderly women. N Engl J Med, 1993;329:1141-1146.
  11. Genant HK, Lucas J, Weiss S, et al. Low-dose esterified estrogen therapy: effective on bone, plasma estradiol concentrations, endometrium and lipid levels. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:2609-2615.
  12. Gray, K. Estrogens, Progestins, and Bone. World Congress on Osteoporosis 2000. Day 1 - June 15, 2000
  13. Greendale GA, Judd HL. The menopause: health implications and clinical management. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993;41:426-436.
  14. Greenwell, I. Programmed cell death in bone tissue after estrogen withdrawal. CyberHealth Weekly #3, November 3 1997
  15. Hendler, SS. The Doctors' Vitamin and Mineral Encyclopedia, Simon and Schuster, 1990. ISBN 0-671-66784-X
  16. Hergenroeder AC, Smith EO, Shypailo R, Jones LA, Klish WJ, Ellis K. Bone mineral changes in young women with hypothalamic amenorrhea treated with oral contraceptives, medroxyprogesterone, or placebo over 12 months. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997 May;176(5):1017-25
  17. Kannus, P. Prevention of Hip Fracture in Elderly People with Use of a Hip Protector. N Engl J Med 343(21) 2000: 1506-1513.
  18. Kettler, DB. Can Manipulation of the Ratios of Essential Fatty Acids Slow the Rapid Rate of Postmenopausal Bone Loss? Alternative Medicine Review - Volume 6, Number 1, February 2001
  19. Lark, S. The Menopause Self Help Book, Celestial Arts, Berkeley, CA, 1990, ISBN 0-89087-592-8
  20. Lindsay R, Tohme JF. Estrogen treatment of patients with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Obstet Gynecol. 1990;76:290-295.
  21. Lindsay R. Long-term estrogen therapy for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81:3829-3820.
  22. Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Kindmark A, Bergstrom R, Holmberg L, Mallmin H, Wolk A, Ljunghall S. Excessive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture. Ann Intern Med 1998 Nov 15;129(10):770-8
  23. Murray, MT, Pizzorno, J. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, Prima Publishing, 1991, ISBN 1-55958-092-5
  24. North American Menopause Society (NAMS), The Role of Calcium in peri- and postmenopausal women: 2006 position statement, page 862 - Menopause, Vol 13, No. 6, 2006 http://www.menopause.org
  25. Nand SL, Wren BG, Gross BA, Heller GZ. (PEPI authors). Bone density effects of continuous estrone sulfate and varying doses of medroxyprogesterone acetate. Ogen/Provera Study Group. Obstet Gynecol 1999 Jun;93(6):1009-13
  26. McClung, MR et al. Effect of Risedronate on the Risk of Hip Fracture in Elderly Women The New England Journal of Medicine 2001 Feb 1;344, No. 5
  27. New SA. Nutritional Factors Influencing the Development and Maintenance of Bone Health Throughout the Life Cycle, World Congress on Osteoporosis 2000. Day 1 - June 15, 2000
  28. New SA, Bolton-Smith C, Grubb DA, Reid DM. Nutritional influences on bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study in premenopausal women. Am J, Clin Nutr. 1997;65:1831-1839.
  29. New SA, Smith R, Foulds E, Reid DM. Associations between present dietary intake and bone health in elderly Scottish men and women. In: Ring EFJ, Elvins DM, Bhalla AK, eds. Current Research in Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Measurement V. London: British Institute of Radiology; 1998:3.
  30. New SA, Robins SP, Campbell MK, et al. Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:142-151.
  31. Nielsen FH, Hunt CD, Mullen LM, Hunt JR. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB J 1987 Nov;1(5):394-7
  32. Nielsen FH. Biochemical and physiologic consequences of boron deprivation in humans. Environ Health Perspect 1994 Nov;102 Suppl 7:59-63
  33. Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. NIH Consensus Statement. Online 2000 March 27-29; [cited year, month, day]; 17(1): 1-36
  34. Scanlon, VC, Sanders, T. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 2nd ed., F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 1995, ISBN 0-8036-7735-9
  35. Pines A, Raafat H, Lynn AH, Whittington J. Clinical trial of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite compound ('Ossopan') in the prevention of osteoporosis due to corticosteroid therapy. Curr Med Res Opin 1984;8(10):734-42
  36. Prior JC, Vigna YM, Wark JD, Eyre DR, Lentle BC, Li DK, Ebeling PR, Atley L. Premenopausal ovariectomy-related bone loss: a randomized, double-blind, one-year trial of conjugated estrogen or medroxyprogesterone acetate. J Bone Miner Res 1997 Nov;12(11):1851-63
  37. Prior, JC. Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone. Endocr Rev 1990 May;11(2):386-98
  38. Schneider DL, Barrett-Connor EL, Morton DJ. Timing of postmenopausal estrogen for optimal bone mineral density: the Rancho Bernardo study. JAMA. 1997;277:543-547
  39. Frassetto L, Todd K, Morris C Jr, Sebastian A. Estimation of net endogenous noncarbonic acid production in humans from dietary protein and potassium contents. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:576-583
  40. Shepherd, JE, Effects of Estrogen on Cognition, Mood, and Degenerative Brain Diseases, J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash) 2001 Mar-Apr;41(2):221-8
  41. Osteoporosis: part I. Evaluation and assessment. Am Fam Physician 2001;Mar 1;63(5):897-904, 908
  42. Stellon A, Davies A, Webb A, Williams R. Postgrad Med J 1985 Sep;61(719):791-6
  43. Tobias, JH et al. Gestagens May Reduce Estrogen's Effects on Bone Resorption in Older Women J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1194-1198
  44. Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples A, Wilson PWF, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium and fruit & vegetables are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;69:727-736.
  45. Weed, S. Menopausal Years: The Wise Woman Way - Alternative Approaches for Women 30-90 Woodstock, New York: Ash Tree, 1992. ISBN 9614620-4-3
  46. Weil, A. Eating Well for Optimum Health - the essential guide to food, diet and nutrition. Alfred A. Knopf, a div. of Random House, NY 2000. ISBN 0-375-40754-5
  47. Wilson, G. Change of Life Clinics, 2001. Cairns, Australia
  48. Greener, Mark. Doctor's Guide Review of: "Bone density changes during two years treatment with tibolone or conjugated estrogens and norgestrel, compared with untreated controls in postmenopausal women" Menopause, 09/14/2000
  49. Elliot Israel, MD, Taruna R. Banerjee, MPH, Garrett M. Fitzmaurice, ScD, Tania V. Kotlov, MS, Karen LaHive, MD, and Meryl S. LeBoff, MD. Effects of Inhaled Glucocorticoids on Bone Density in Premenopausal Women. The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) 2001, Sept 27; Volume 345:941-947, No. 13.

Additional References

  • Bellido T, Plotkin LI, Han L, Manolagas SC. Estrogen inhibit apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes through rapid (non-genomic) activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Program and abstracts of the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Annual Meeting; September 30-October 4, 1999; St. Louis, Mo. Abstract SA135.
  • Bodenner DL, Yamamoto M, Kozlowski M, Manolagas SC. Essential requirement of the estrogen receptor alpha or beta for (non-genomic) anti-apoptotic effects of estrogen. Program and abstracts of the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Annual Meeting; September 30-October 4, 1999; St. Louis, Mo. Abstract F071.
  • Gallagher JC, Semparatide Investigators. PTHrP (1-34) analog, semparatide acetate (RS-66271), causes sustained increases in spine in postmenopausal osteoporotic women: two randomized placebo-controlled trials. Program and abstracts of the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Annual Meeting; September 30-October 4, 1999; St. Louis, Mo. Abstract 1018.
  • Manolagas SC, Weinstein RS, Bellido T, Bodenner DL. Opposite effects of estrogen on the life span of osteoblasts/osteocytes versus osteoclasts in vivo and in vitro: an explanation of the imbalance between formation and resorption in estrogen deficiency. In: Program and abstracts of the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Annual Meeting; September 30-October 4, 1999; St. Louis, Mo. Abstract 1147.
  • Manolagas SC, Weinstein RS, Bellido T, Bodenner DL, Jilka RL, Parfitt AM. Activators of non-genomic estrogen-like signalling (ANGELS): a novel class of small molecules with bone anabolic properties. In: Program and abstracts of the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Annual Meeting; September 30-October 4, 1999; St. Louis, Mo. Abstract 1191.
  • Martin-Du Pan RC, Luzuy F. What's new in hormone replacement therapy of postmenopausal women? Risks of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), Rev Med Suisse Romande 2000 Jun;120(6):523-7
  • Roe EB, Sanchez SD, de Puerto GA, et al. Parathyroid hormone 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) and estrogen produce dramatic bone density increases in postmenopausal osteoporosis - results from a placebo-controlled Randomized Trial. Program and abstracts of the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Annual Meeting; September 30-October 4, 1999; St. Louis, Mo. Abstract 1019


Content updated May 2007






The Whole Story

Jump to any aspect, or read all the parts of this segment.
What is osteoporosis?
When does it start?
Risk Factors for Osteoporosis & Fracture
Diagnostic Tests
Improving & Maintaining Bone Health
Foods, Herbs & Supplements at a Glance






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