HRT-References for Hormone Replacement Therapy
Association of Women for the Advancement of Research and Education Today is
ProjectAWARE logo

    You are here:  Home >  Managing Menopause >  HRT >  References Bookmark and Share


  Menopause Experience
The 35 Symptoms
Premature Menopause
Personal Stories
  Managing Menopause
  The Options
Alternatives to HRT
  Health Issues
  Breast Cancer
Heart Health
  Article Archives
Books & Newsletters
Finding a Doctor
Glossary of Terms
Health Links
News Stories
Studies & Trials
  Docs Corner
  Hormone Health
Wellness & You
Q & A
  Who We Are
  Advertising Statement
Privacy & Confidentiality
Link to Us
Support AWARE
Contact Us





Alexander KP, Newby LK, Hellkamp AS, et al. Initiation of hormone replacement therapy after acute myocardial infarction is associated with more cardiac events during follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:1-7.

Anasti J, Leonetti H, Wilson K. Topical progesterone cream has antiproliferative effect on estrogen-stimulated endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97(4 Suppl 1):S10.

Ansbacher R. The pharmokinetics and efficacy of different estrogens are not equivalent. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:255-263.

Archer et al. Effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate on endometrial bleeding. Fertility and Sterility, Vol 75, No 6 June 2001.

Asthana S, Baker LD, Craft S, et al. High-dose estradiol improves cognition for women with AD: results of a randomized study. Neurology 2001 Aug 28;57(4):605-612.

Asthana S, Craft S, Baker LD, Raskind MA, Birnbaum RS, Lofgreen CP, Veith RC, Plymate SR. Cognitive and neuroendocrine response to transdermal estrogen in postmenopausal women with Alzheimer's disease: results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1999 Aug;24(6):657-77.

Baker VL. Alternatives to oral estrogen replacement. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 1994;21(2):271-97.

Baracat E, Tufik S, Castelo A, Rodrigues de Lima G, Haidar M, Casoy J, Peloso U Comparative bioavailability of a matrix versus a reservoir transdermal estradiol patch in healthy postmenopausal women. Curr Ther Res. 1995;56 (4) 358-368.

Bongard V, Ferrieres J, Ruidavets JB, Amouyel P, Arveiler D, Bingham A, Ducimetiere P. Transdermal estrogen replacement therapy and plasma lipids in 693 French women. Maturitas. 1998 Nov 16;30(3):265-72.

Brussaard HE, Gevers Leuven JA, Frolich M, Kluft C, Krans HM. Short-term oestrogen replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, lipids and fibrinolysis in postmenopausal women with NIDDM. Diabetologia. 1997 Jul;40(7):843-9.

Cheang A, Sitruk-Ware R, Utian W. A risk-benefit appraisal of transdermal estradiol therapy. Drug Safety. 1993; 9 (5): 365-379.

Chen C, Weiss N, Newcomb P, et al. Hormone replacement therapy in relation to breast cancer. JAMA 2002;287:734-741.

Chen FP, Lee N, Soong YK, Huang KE. Comparison of transdermal and oral estrogen-progestin replacement therapy: effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Menopause. 2001 Sep-Oct;8(5):347-52.

Cheung AP. Acute effects of estradiol and progesterone on insulin, lipids and lipoproteins in postmenopausal women: a pilot study. Maturitas. 2000 Apr 28;35(1):45-50.

Colditz GA, Manson JE, Hankinson SE. The Nurses' Health Study: 20-year contribution to the understanding of health among women. J Women's Health 1997;49-62.

Colditz GA. Hormones and breast cancer: evidence and implications for consideration of risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. J Women Health 1999;8:347-357. PMID: 10326989 PubMed

Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. [No authors listed]. Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52,705 women with breast cancer and 108,411 women without breast cancer. Lancet 1997;350(9084):1047-1059.

Cummings JA, Brizendine L. Comparison of physical and emotional side effects of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone in early postmenopausal women. Menopause 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):253-63

Crook D. The metabolic consequences of treating postmenopausal women with non-oral hormone replacement therapy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1997 Nov;104 Suppl 16:4-13. Review.

Crook D, Cust MP, Gangar KF, Worthington M, Hillard TC, Stevenson JC, Whitehead MI, Wynn V. Comparison of transdermal and oral estrogen-progestin replacement therapy: effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Mar;166(3):950-5.

Dalton K. The Premenstrual Syndrome and Progesterone Therapy. London, England: William Heinemann; 1984.

Davidson MH, Maki KC, Marx P, Maki AC, Cyrowski MS, Nanavati N, Arce JC. Effects of continuous estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement regimens on cardiovascular risk markers in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Nov 27;160(21):3315-25.

Fitzpatrick LA, Pace C, Wiita B. Comparison of regimens containing oral micronized progesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate on quality of life in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional survey. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000 May;9(4):381-7

Gapstur SM, Morrow M, Sellers TA. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer with a favorable histology: results of the Iowa Women's Health Study. JAMA. 1999 Jun 9;281(22):2091-2097.

Gavin NI, Thorp JM, Ohsfeldt RL. Determinants of hormone replacement therapy duration among postmenopausal women with intact uteri. Menopause 2001 Sep-Oct;8(5):377-383. [option to try different types and strengths of HRT has been shown to be a statistically significant factor in the decision to continue HRT]

Gilabert J, Estelles A, Cano A, Espana F, Barrachina R, Grancha S, Aznar J, Tortajada M. The effect of estrogen replacement therapy with or without progestogen on the fibrinolytic system and coagulation inhibitors in postmenopausal status. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Dec;173(6):1849-54.

Giri S, Thompson PD, Taxel P, Contois JH, Otvos J, Allen R, Ens G, Wu AH, Waters DD. Related Articles. Oral estrogen improves serum lipids, homocysteine and fibrinolysis in elderly men. Atherosclerosis. 1998 Apr;137(2):359-66.

Hargrove JT, Eisenberg E. Menopause. Oral micronized progesterone in conjunction with oral micronized estradiol resulted in a quiescent endometrium in a 12 month study of 10 women. Med Clin North Am 1995 Nov;79(6):1337-1356.

Hoibraaten E, Os I, Seljeflot I, Andersen TO, Hofstad A, Sandset PM. The effects of hormone replacement therapy on hemostatic variables in women with angiographically verified coronary artery disease: results from the estrogen in women with atherosclerosis study. Thromb Res. 2000 Apr 1;98(1):19-27.

Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. JAMA 1998 Aug 19;280: 605-613.

Koh KK, Jin DK, Yang SH, Lee SK, Hwang HY, Kang MH, Kim W, Kim DS, Choi IS, Shin EK. Vascular effects of synthetic or natural progestagen combined with conjugated equine estrogen in healthy postmenopausal women. Circulation 2001 Apr 17;103(15):1961-6

LeBlanc ES, Janowsky J, Chan BK, Nelson HD. In women with menopausal symptoms, HRT may have specific cognitive effects, and future studies should target these effects. The meta-analysis found a decreased risk of dementia in HRT users but most studies had important methodological limitations. JAMA 2001 Mar 21;285(11):1489-1499.

Lee John R, MD; Zava David, PhD; Hopkins Virginia. What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Breast Cancer: How Hormone Balance Can Help Save Your Life.

Leonetti HB, Longo S, Anasti JN. Transdermal progesterone cream for vasomotor symptoms and postmenopausal bone loss. Obstet Gynecol 1999 Aug;94(2):225-228.

Lindheim SR, Duffy DM, Kojima T, Vijod MA, Stanczyk FZ, Lobo RA. The route of administration influences the effect of estrogen on insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril. 1995 Sep;64(3):665-7.

Lundstrom E, Wilczek B, von Palffy Z, Soderqvist G, von Schoultz B. Mammographic breast density during hormone replacement therapy: effects of continuous combination, unopposed transdermal and low-potency estrogen regimens. Climacteric. 2001 Mar;4(1):42-8.

Luyer MD, Khosla S, Owen WG, Miller VM. Prospective randomized study of effects of unopposed estrogen replacement therapy on markers of coagulation and inflammation in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;86(8):3629-34.

Maxson WS. The use of progesterone in the treatment of PMS. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1987:30:465-477.

McCarty MF. Oral replacement therapy featuring micronized progesterone, if administered throughout postmenopausal life, can be expected to have a highly positive impact on vascular health, bone density, and risks for Alzheimer's disease and colon cancer--benefits which, in most women, may vastly outweigh the associated increase in risk for breast and endometrial cancers. Med Hypotheses 2001 Feb;56(2):213-6.

Meschia M, Bruschi F, Soma M, Amicarelli F, Paoletti R, Crosignani P. Effects of oral and transdermal hormone replacement therapy on lipoprotein(A) and lipids: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause. 1998 Fall;5(3):157-62.

Modena MG, Molinari R, Muia N Jr, Castelli A, Pala F, Rossi R. Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of transdermal estrogen replacement therapy on hypertensive postmenopausal women. Am J Hypertens. 1999 Oct;12(1O Pt 1):1000-8.

Mosca L, Collins P, Herrington DM, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2001;101:499-503.

Mundy Dr. Gregory. Cholesterol drugs (statins) stimulate bone growth. OsteoScreen in San Antonio, Texas: Science 1999;286:1946-1949

Murray Jane L, MD. Natural Progesterone-What Role in Women's Healthcare? Women's Health In Primary Care. 1998: 1(8):671-687

North American Menopause Society. Menopause: A Decision Tree for the Use of Estrogen Replacement Therapy or Hormone Replacement Therapy in Menopausal Women: Consensus Opinion (PDF). The Journal of The North American Menopause Society Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 76–86. (Note: information about contraindications is based on the estrogen product insert as approved by the FDA)

Northrup Christiane. The Wisdom of Menopause. Bantam Book, March 2001. ISBN 0-553-80121-X

O'Meara ES, Rossing MA, Daling JR, Elmore JG, Barlow WE, Weiss NS. Hormone replacement therapy after a diagnosis of breast cancer in relation to recurrence and mortality. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93:754-62.

Perera M, Sattar N, Petrie JR, Hillier C, Small M, Connell JM, Lowe GD, Lumsden MA. The effects of transdermal estradiol in combination with oral norethisterone on lipoproteins, coagulation, and endothelial markers in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;86(3):1140-3.

Santen RJ, Pinkerton J, McCartney C, Petroni GR. Risk of breast cancer with progestins in combination with estrogen as hormone replacement therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jan;86(1):16-23.

Schairer C, Lubin J, Troisi R, Sturgeon S, Brinton L, Hoover R. Menopausal estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. JAMA 2000 Jan 26;283(4):485-491.

Seifert M, Galid A, Kubista E. Estrogen replacement therapy in women with a history of breast cancer. Maturitas 1999;32(2):63-8.

Seshadri Sudha, MD; Zornberg Gwen L., MD, ScD; Derby Laura E., DSc; Myers Marian W., MPH; Jick Hershel, MD; Drachman David A., MD The use of ERT in women after the onset of menopause was not associated with a reduced risk of developing AD. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:435-440

Sitruk-Ware R, De Lignieres B, Basdevant A, Mauvais-Jarvis P Absorption of percutaneous oestradiol in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 1980; 2:207-211.

Slowinska-Srzednicka J, Zgliczynski S, Chotkowska E, Srzednicki M, Stopinska-Gluszak U, Jeske W, Brzezinska A, Zgliczynski W, Sadowski Z. Effects of transdermal 17 beta-oestradiol combined with oral progestogen on lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolaemic postmenopausal women. J Intern Med. 1993 Nov;234(5):447-51.

Soares CN, Almeida OP, Joffe H, Cohen LS. Efficacy of estradiol for the treatment of depressive disorders in perimenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001 Jun;58(6):537-8.

Sturdee DW. Current hormone replacement therapy: What are the shortcomings? Advances in delivery. Int J Clin Pract 1999;53(6):468-472.

Teede HJ, McGrath BP, Smolich JJ, Malan E, Kotsopoulos D, Liang YL, Peverill RE. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy increases coagulation activity and fibrinolysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000 May;20(5):1404-9.

The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. JAMA. 1995: 273:199-208.

The Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;288:321-333. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Uhler ML, Marks JW, Judd HL. Estrogen replacement therapy and gallbladder disease in postmenopausal women. Menopause 2000 May-Jun;7(3):162-167.

Utian et al. Relief of vasomotor symptoms and vaginal atrophy with lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate. Fertility and Sterility, Vol 75, No 6 June 2001.

Vassilopoulou-Selin R, Asmar L, Hortobagyi GN, et al. Estrogen replacement therapy after localized breast cancer: clinical outcome of 319 women followed prospectively. J Clin Oncol 1999;5:1482-1487.

Vassilopoulou-Selin R, Theriault RL. Randomized prospective trial of estrogen replacement therapy in women with a history of breast cancer. Monog Natl Cancer Inst 1994;6:153-159.

Vehkavaara S, Hakala-Ala-Pietila T, Virkamaki A, Bergholm R, Ehnholm C, Hovatta O, Taskinen MR, Yki-Jarvinen H. Differential effects of oral and transdermal estrogen replacement therapy on endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Circulation. 2000 Nov 28;102(22):2687-93.

Vehkavaara S, Silveira A, Hakala-Ala-Pietila T, Virkamaki A, Hovatta O, Hamsten A, Taskinen MR, Yki-Jarvinen H. Effects of oral and transdermal estrogen replacement therapy on markers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and serum lipids and lipoproteins in postmenopausal women. Thromb Haemost. 2001 Apr;85(4):619-25.

Viscoli CM, Brass LM, Kernan WN, Sarrel PM, Suissa S, Horwitz RI. Estrogen Replacement after Ischemic Stroke: Report of the Women's Estrogen for Stroke Trial (WEST). The New England Journal of Medicine, October 25, 2001, Vol. 345, No. 17, pp. 1243-1249.

Vongpatanasin, Wanpen, MD, FACC et al. Differential Effects of Oral Versus Transdermal Estrogen Replacement Therapy on C-Reactive Protein in Postmenopausal Women . Dallas, Texas and Sacramento, California. JACC Vol. 41, No. 8, 2003. "Estrogen and Inflammatory Markers". April 16, 2003:1358–63.

Westendorp Dr Iris, Witteman Dr Jacqueline. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Peripheral Arterial Disease: The Rotterdam Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2000;160:2498-502

Whitcroft SI, Crook D, Marsh MS, Ellerington MC, Whitehead MI, Stevenson JC. Long-term effects of oral and transdermal hormone replacement therapies on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Aug;84(2):222-6.

Wilson James L, MD, DC, PhD. Adrenal Fatigue, The 21st Century Stress Syndrome. Smart Publications. 2001. ISBN:1-890572-15-2

Winkler UH, Kramer R, Kwee B, Schindler AE. Estrogen replacement in postmenopause, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis: comparison of a new kind of transdermal estradiol treatment with oral therapy with conjugated estrogens. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1995;117(10):540-8. German.

Wren B, McFarland K, Edwards L, et al. Effect of sequential transdermal progesterone cream on endometrium, bleeding pattern, and plasma progesterone and salivary progesterone levels in postmenopausal women. Climacteric 2000;3:155-160.

Wroblewski Lynette Lissin, MD; and Cooke John P., FACC MD, PhD. Summary: phytoestrogens, in the form of dietary isoflavones, represent a new area to explore in pursuit of nutritional approaches to cardiovascular protection. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. May 2000. Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 1403-1410

Yen SSC, Martin PL, Burnier AM, Czekala NM, Greney MO JR, Callantine MR. Circulating estradiol, estrone and gonadotropin levels following the administration of orally active 17b-estradiol in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975; 40:518-520.

Ylikorkala O, Orpana A, Puolakka I, et al. Postmenopausal hormonal replacement decreases plasma levels of endothelin I. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995; 80:3384-3387.


Other parts of this segment...

What is hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and Why would I need it?
  What hormones are used in HRT? and How is HRT taken?
  About estrogen
  About progesterone
  Benefits, risks and side effects of ERT, HRT, and NHRT
  HRT and breast cancer
  Androgens, SERMs and other drugs for menopause
  What are some alternatives to standard HRT?
  Resources and References


Page uploaded September 2002






Note: Links to other websites will open in new windows. This is intended to help you return easily to ProjectAWARE site for more exploration.


Adrenal Fatigue
Cortisol and Weight
DHEA or Testosterone for Women
Estrogen and Memory Loss
HRT for Breast Cancer Survivors and Women at High Risk for Cancer
Human Identical Hormones
Premarin, Facts and Opinions
Progesterone FAQ
Synthetic Progestins and Natural Progesterone, Differences
Natural Progesterone, What Role in Women's Healthcare
Tamoxifen for Prevention of Breast Cancer
Testosterone and Its Benefits to Women
Testosterone's Impact on Postmenopausal Women...
Thyroid Hormone, Symptoms, and...
Typical HRT Products
Where to get Natural Hormones
Herbal Allies, An Introduction
Alternative Remedies for Menopausal Symptoms












































Adrenal Fatigue
Cortisol and Weight
DHEA or Testosterone for Women
Estrogen and Memory Loss
HRT for Breast Cancer Survivors and Women at High Risk for Cancer
Human Identical Hormones
Premarin, Facts and Opinions
Progesterone FAQ
Synthetic Progestins and Natural Progesterone, Differences
Natural Progesterone, What Role in Women's Healthcare
Tamoxifen for Prevention of Breast Cancer
Testosterone and Its Benefits to Women
Testosterone's Impact on Postmenopausal Women...
Thyroid Hormone, Symptoms, and...
Typical HRT Products
Where to get Natural Hormones
Herbal Allies, An Introduction
Alternative Remedies for Menopausal Symptoms






Copyright 1997-2010 ProjectAWARE. All rights reserved.

Questions or comments about this site? Contact the Website Editor, <>

Updated 09/29/2010